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Fofi Constantinidou, PhD; Robin D. Thomas, PhD; Lacy Robinson, MA, CCC-S (2008). Benefits of Categorization Training in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury During Post–acute Rehabilitation: Additional Evidence From a Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 23(5), 312–328.

Background: Preliminary research with the Categorization Program (CP) indicated that this therapeutic modality is beneficial in improving cognitive abilities in survivors of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study provides additional evidence for the use of the CP in postacute TBI cognitive rehabilitation. Methods: Twenty-one participants in the experimental group received the CP training, and 14 participants in the control group received the conventional treatment used at their rehabilitation center. Following neuropsychological testing, participants began their therapy program. Results: There was no significant difference in the baseline performance of the 2 TBI groups on any of the measures. CP-dependent measures correlated significantly with several neuropsychological tests. Both groups improved in their neuropsychological test performance and on functional outcomes tests. However, subjects in the experimental group improved on more tests than participants in the control group. Posttest performance of subjects in the TBI control group was significantly lower on the CP Test 1 and CP Test 2 as compared with the experimental group. Furthermore, the performance of participants in the CP group improved across the 3 probe tasks demonstrating generalizability to new tasks; the performance of participants in the control group did not improve. Conclusions: The CP is an effective therapy method to reduce categorization impairment and improve cognitive performance of survivors of TBI who are enrolled in postacute rehabilitation. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting cognitive rehabilitation efforts after TBI.


Ashley, M., Clark, M., Hall, M., Persel, C. and Lehr, R. (2005). Validation of a New Measure for Post-Acute Rehabilitation (commentary). International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 12(2), 63-71.


Constantinidou, F. and Kreimer, L. (2004). Feature Description and Categorization of Common Objects After Traumatic Brain Injury: The Effects of a Multi-Trial Paradigm. Brain and Language, 89(1), 216-225.

This study investigated the ability to describe and categorize common objects following brain injury. Thirteen subjects with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 13 noninjured controls participated in this project. The project consisted of 3 parts: 1. A spontaneous condition, 2. A training session, and 3. An application condition. During the spontaneous condition, subjects were asked to describe common objects. Following the spontaneous condition, subjects participated in a multi-trial training session to learn 8 perceptual features. The protocol concluded with an application condition where subjects were asked to apply all 8 features to describe additional objects. Overall, noninjured subjects provided more features than the group with TBI. However, subjects with TBI benefited from the training session, as they were able to learn more features across the repeated trials. Furthermore, both groups performed better during the application condition compared to the spontaneous description of objects. The results indicate that the multi-trial training session was effective in teaching subjects the 8 perceptual features..


Ashley, M. and Persel, C. (2003). Cognitive Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Survey of Clinical Practice. The Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 21(2), 20-27.

Cognitive rehabilitation for persons with traumatic brain injury has been practiced since the lates 1970's. Recent trends in reimbursement for cognitive rehabilitation are in seeming paradox with that fact that cognitive rehabilitation has been widely considered to be of profound importance in the therapeutic regimine following traumatic brain injury. This survey attempted to review and report the attitudes of allied health professionals familiar with cognitive rehabilitation and TBI.

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